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Speed of Sound

Figure from experiment 33 from Physics with Vernier

Introduction

Compared to most things you study in the physics lab, sound waves travel very fast. It is fast enough that measuring the speed of sound is a technical challenge. One method you could use would be to time an echo. For example, if you were in an open field with a large building a quarter of a kilometer away, you could start a stopwatch when a loud noise was made and stop it when you heard the echo. You could then calculate the speed of sound.

To use the same technique over short distances, you need a faster timing system, such as a data-collection interface. In this experiment, you will use this technique with a Microphone connected to an interface to determine the speed of sound at room temperature. The Microphone will be placed next to the opening of a hollow tube. When you make a sound by snapping your fingers next to the opening, the computer will begin collecting data. After the sound reflects off the opposite end of the tube, a graph will be displayed showing the initial sound and the echo. You will then be able to determine the round trip time and calculate the speed of sound.

Objectives

  • Measure how long it takes sound to travel down and back in a long tube.
  • Determine the speed of sound.
  • Compare the speed of sound in air to the accepted value.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Physics with Vernier »

Experiment 33 from Physics with Vernier Lab Book

<i>Physics with Vernier</i> book cover

Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

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