Compared to most things you study in the physics lab, sound waves travel very fast. It is fast enough that measuring the speed of sound is a technical challenge. One method you could use would be to time an echo. For example, if you were in an open field with a large building a quarter of a kilometer away, you could start a stopwatch when a loud noise was made and stop it when you heard the echo. You could then calculate the speed of sound.
To use the same technique over short distances, you need a faster timing system, such as a data-collection interface. In this experiment, you will use this technique with a Microphone connected to an interface to determine the speed of sound at room temperature. The Microphone will be placed next to the opening of a hollow tube. When you make a sound by snapping your fingers next to the opening, the computer will begin collecting data. After the sound reflects off the opposite end of the tube, a graph will be displayed showing the initial sound and the echo. You will then be able to determine the round trip time and calculate the speed of sound.
- Measure how long it takes sound to travel down and back in a long tube.
- Determine the speed of sound.
- Compare the speed of sound in air to the accepted value.