Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Physical Pendulum

Figure from experiment 18 from Advanced Physics with Vernier — Mechanics


The introductory treatment of the motion of a pendulum leaves one with the impression that the period of oscillation is independent of the mass and the amplitude, and depends only on the length of the pendulum. These relationships are generally true so long as two important conditions are met:

  1. the amplitude is small (<< 1 radian), and
  2. the mass of the system is concentrated at the end of the string.

Experiment 17 examined the non-ideal behavior of the pendulum when the amplitude was not kept small. In this experiment, you will investigate the effect on the behavior of a pendulum when the mass of the system can no longer be treated as a point mass at the end of a massless string.


In this experiment, you will

  • Collect angle vs. time data for a variety of physical pendulums.
  • Determine the period of oscillation from an analysis of the angle vs. time graph.
  • From an analysis of the torques acting on the system, derive the equation describing the motion of the physical pendulum.
  • Compare this equation to the one that describes the motion of a simple pendulum.
  • Relate the angular frequency, ω, of the system to its physical features.
  • Compare the agreement between experimental and calculated values of ω determined by this treatment of the system with those obtained by treating the system as if it were a simple pendulum.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Advanced Physics with Vernier — Mechanics

See other experiments from the lab book.

1Motion on an Incline
2Error Analysis
3Newton's First Law
4Newton's Second Law
5Newton's Third Law
6Projectile Motion
7Energy Storage and Transfer: Elastic Energy
8Energy Storage and Transfer: Kinetic Energy
9Energy Storage and Transfer: Gravitational Energy
10AImpulse and Momentum (Motion Detector)
10BImpulse and Momentum (Photogate)
11AMomentum and Collisions (Motion Detectors)
11BMomentum and Collisions (Photogates)
12ACentripetal Acceleration
12BCentripetal Acceleration
13Rotational Dynamics
14Conservation of Angular Momentum
15Simple Harmonic Motion: Mathematical Model
16Simple Harmonic Motion: Kinematics and Dynamics
17Pendulum Periods
18Physical Pendulum
19Center of Mass

Experiment 18 from Advanced Physics with Vernier — Mechanics Lab Book

<i>Advanced Physics with Vernier — Mechanics</i> book cover

Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

Buy the Book

Go to top