Vernier Software & Technology

# Neutralization Reactions

## Introduction

If an acid is added to a base, a chemical reaction called neutralization occurs. An example is the reaction between nitric acid, HNO3, and the base potassium hydroxide, KOH.

${\text{HN}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{ + KOH}} \to {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O + KN}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$

Neutralization produces a salt and water. KNO3 is the salt in the above reaction. Heat energy is generally released, and the amount of heat released depends upon the properties of the acid and the base. Temperature measurements, made with a Temperature Probe, can be used to study the heat effects of neutralization.

## Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Use conductivity to determine the strengths of acids and bases.
• Use litmus paper to distinguish acids and bases.
• Measure temperatures of reactants and products of neutralization reactions.
• Study the relationship between acid and base strength and heat released during neutralization.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

### Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Physical Science with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Temperature Probe Response Time 2 Boiling Temperature of Water 3 Freezing and Melting of Water 4 Evaporation of Alcohols 5 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions 6 Neutralization Reactions 7 Mixing Warm and Cold Water 8 Heat of Fusion 9 Energy Content of Fuels 10 Energy Content of Foods 11 Absorption of Radiant Energy 12 An Insulated Cola Bottle 13 A Good Sock 14 Insolation Angle 15 Solar Homes and Heat Sinks 16 Conducting Solutions 17 Conductivity of Saltwater: The Effect of Concentration 18 Acid Strengths 19 Frictional Forces 20 First-Class Levers 21 Pulleys 22 An Inclined Plane 23 Reflectivity of Light 24 Polarizing Light 25 How Bright is the Light? 26 Electromagnets: Winding Things Up 27 Magnetic Field Explorations 28 Household Acids and Bases 29 Acid Rain 30 Gas Pressure and Volume 31 Gas Temperature and Pressure 32 Fun with Pressure 33 Lemon "Juice" 34 Simple Circuits 35 Graphing Your Motion 36 Speeding Up 37 It's Race Day 38 Crash Lesson 39 Newton's Second Law 40 Falling Objects

### Experiment 6 from Physical Science with Vernier Lab Book

#### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.