Vernier Software & Technology

# Pendulum Periods

## Introduction

A swinging pendulum keeps a very regular beat. It is so regular, in fact, that for many years the pendulum was the heart of clocks used in astronomical measurements at the Greenwich Observatory.

There are at least three things you could change about a pendulum that might affect the period (the time for one complete cycle):

• the amplitude of the pendulum swing
• the length of the pendulum, measured from the center of the pendulum bob to the point of support
• the mass of the pendulum bob

To investigate the pendulum, you need to do a controlled experiment; that is, you need to make measurements, changing only one variable at a time. Conducting controlled experiments is a basic principle of scientific investigation.

In this experiment, you will use a Photogate to measure the period of one complete swing of a pendulum. By conducting a series of controlled experiments with the pendulum, you can determine how each of these quantities affects the period.

## Objectives

• Measure the period of a pendulum as a function of amplitude.
• Measure the period of a pendulum as a function of length.
• Measure the period of a pendulum as a function of bob mass.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Physics with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Graph Matching 2A Back and Forth Motion 2B Back and Forth Motion 3A Cart on a Ramp 3B Cart on a Ramp 4A Determining g on an Incline 4B Determining g on an Incline 5 Picket Fence Free Fall 6 Ball Toss 7 Bungee Jump Accelerations 8A Projectile Motion (Photogates) 8B Projectile Motion (Projectile Launcher) 9 Newton's Second Law 10 Atwood's Machine 11 Newton's Third Law 12 Static and Kinetic Friction 13 Air Resistance 14 Pendulum Periods 15 Simple Harmonic Motion 16 Energy of a Tossed Ball 17 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 18A Momentum, Energy and Collisions 18B Momentum, Energy and Collisions 19A Impulse and Momentum 19B Impulse and Momentum 20 Centripetal Accelerations on a Turntable 21 Accelerations in the Real World 22 Ohm's Law 23 Series and Parallel Circuits 24 Capacitors 25 The Magnetic Field in a Coil 26 The Magnetic Field in a Slinky 27 Electrical Energy 28A Polarization of Light 28B Polarization of Light (Rotary Motion Sensor) 29 Light, Brightness and Distance 30 Newton's Law of Cooling 31 The Magnetic Field of a Permanent Magnet 32 Sound Waves and Beats 33 Speed of Sound 34 Tones, Vowels and Telephones 35 Mathematics of Music

### Experiment 14 from Physics with Vernier Lab Book

#### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

Dev Reference: VST0294