Vernier Software & Technology

# Oxygen Gas and Human Respiration

## Introduction

The process of breathing accomplishes two important tasks for the body. During inhalation, oxygen-rich air is brought into your lungs. During exhalation, air depleted in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide is forced out. Oxygen is then transported to the cells where it is used in the process of respiration, yielding carbon dioxide as a product.

${{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{{\text{12}}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{6}}}{\text{ + 6 }}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}} \to {\text{6 C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{ }}{\text{ + 6 }}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O + energy}}$ ${\text{glucose + oxygen }} \to {\text{carbon dioxide + water + energy}}$

Gas exchange takes place in the lungs at the membrane between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries. It is here that oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide diffuses out. Under normal circumstances, there is an equilibrium between the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. Several mechanisms are involved in maintaining this balance. One such mechanism involves chemoreceptors. These specialized cells respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen and H+ concentrations and influence the body’s ventilation patterns to maintain the proper balance of blood gases.

In this experiment, you will determine what factors affect how long you can hold your breath. You will be tested under two different conditions. The first condition is normal breathing. The second condition is immediately following hyperventilation. Hyperventilation is when your breathing rate is greater than what is necessary for proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This will be achieved by a period of rapid breathing prior to holding your breath.

## Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Use an O2 Gas Sensor to determine residual oxygen levels in exhaled air.
• Evaluate how internal O2 and CO2 concentrations influence breathing patterns.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

### Option 2

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Agricultural Science with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Introduction to Data Collection 2 Acids and Bases 3 Diffusion through Membranes 4 Conducting Solutions 5 Osmosis 6 Respiration of Sugars by Yeast 7 Reflection and Absorption of Light 8 Soil pH 9 Soil Salinity 10 Soil Temperature 11 Soil Moisture 12A Photosynthesis and Respiration (CO2) 12B Photosynthesis and Respiration (O2) 12C Photosynthesis and Respiration (CO2 and O2) 13 Transpiration 14A Cell Respiration (CO2) 14B Cell Respiration (O2) 14C Cell Respiration (CO2 and O2) 15 The Greenhouse Effect 16 Energy in Food 17A Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity 17B Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity 18A Lactase Action 18B Lactase Action 19 Oxygen Gas and Human Respiration 20 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 21 Animal Temperature 22 Lemon "Juice" 23 Ohm's Law 24 Energy Content of Fuels 25 Photovoltaic Cells 26 Wind Power 27 Watershed Testing 28 Interdependence of Plants and Animals 29 Biodiversity and Ecosystems

### Experiment 19 from Agricultural Science with Vernier Lab Book

#### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.