Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Photosynthesis

Figure from experiment 4B from Advanced Biology with Vernier

Introduction

The process of photosynthesis involves the use of light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar, oxygen, and other organic compounds. This process is often summarized by the following reaction:

{\text{6 }}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O  +  6 C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{  +  light energy}} \to {{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{{\text{12}}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{6}}}{\text{  +  6 }}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}

This process is an extremely complex one, occurring in two stages. The first stage, called the light reactions of photosynthesis, requires light energy. The products of the light reactions are then used to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. Because the reactions in the second stage do not require the direct use of light energy, they are called the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

In the light reactions, electrons derived from water are “excited” (raised to higher energy levels) in several steps, called photosystems I and II. In both steps, chlorophyll absorbs light energy that is used to excite the electrons. Normally, these electrons are passed to a cytochrome-containing electron transport chain. In the first photosystem, these electrons are used to generate ATP. In the second photosystem, excited electrons are used to produce the reduced coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Both ATP and NADPH are then used in the dark reactions to produce glucose.

In this experiment, a blue dye (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, or DPIP) will be used to replace NADPH in the light reactions. When the dye is oxidized, it is blue. When reduced, however, it turns colorless. Since DPIP replaces NADPH in the light reactions, it will turn from blue to colorless when reduced during photosynthesis.

Objectives

In this experiment, you will

  • Use a Colorimeter or Spectrometer to measure color changes due to photosynthesis.
  • Study the effect of light on photosynthesis.
  • Study the effect that the boiling of plant cells has on photosynthesis.
  • Compare the rates of photosynthesis for plants in different light conditions.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Advanced Biology with Vernier »

Advanced Biology with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

1ADiffusion through Membranes
1BOsmosis
2AEnzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity
2BEnzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity
3Mitosis & Meiosis
4APlant Pigment Chromatography
4BPhotosynthesis
5ACell Respiration (CO2 and O2)
5BCell Respiration (CO2)
5CCell Respiration (O2)
5DCell Respiration (Pressure)
6ApGLO™ Bacterial Transformation
6BAnalysis of Precut Lambda DNA
6BForensic DNA Fingerprinting
7Genetics of Drosophila
8Population Genetics and Evolution
9Transpiration
10ABlood Pressure as a Vital Sign
10BHeart Rate and Physical Fitness
11Animal Behavior
12ADissolved Oxygen in Water
12BPrimary Productivity
13The Visible Spectra of Plant Pigments
14Determination of Chlorophyll in Olive Oil
15Enzyme Analysis using Tyrosinase
16Introduction to Neurotransmitters using AChE
17Macromolecules: Experiments with Protein

Experiment 4B from Advanced Biology with Vernier Lab Book

<i>Advanced Biology with Vernier</i> book cover

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