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Standardizing a Solution of Sodium Hydroxide

Figure from experiment 6 from Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

Introduction

It is often necessary to test a solution of unknown concentration with a solution of a known, precise concentration. The process of determining the unknown’s concentration is called standardization.

Solutions of sodium hydroxide are virtually impossible to prepare to a precise molar concentration because the substance is hygroscopic. In fact, solid NaOH absorbs so much moisture from the air that a measured sample of the compound is never 100% NaOH. On the other hand, the acid salt potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, can be measured out in precise mass amounts. It reacts with NaOH in a simple 1:1 stoichiometric ratio, thus making it an ideal substance to use to standardize a solution of NaOH.

Objectives

In this experiment, you will

  • Prepare an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide to a target molar concentration.
  • Determine the concentration of your NaOH solution by titrating it with a solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate, abbreviated KHP, with an exact molar concentration.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Advanced Chemistry with Vernier »

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

1The Determination of a Chemical Formula
2The Determination of the Percent Water in a Compound
3The Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid
4Using Freezing-Point Depression to Find Molecular Weight
5The Molar Volume of a Gas
6Standardizing a Solution of Sodium Hydroxide
7Acid-Base Titration
8An Oxidation-Reduction Titration: The Reaction of Fe2+ and Ce4+
9Determining the Mole Ratios in a Chemical Reaction
10The Determination of an Equilibrium Constant
11Investigating Indicators
12The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide
13Determining the Enthalpy of a Chemical Reaction
14ASeparation and Qualitative Analysis of Cations
14BSeparation and Qualitative Analysis of Anions
15AThe Synthesis of Alum
15BThe Analysis of Alum
16Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate
17Determining the Concentration of a Solution: Beer's Law
18Liquid Chromatography
19Buffers
20Electrochemistry: Voltaic Cells
21Electroplating
22The Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin
23Determining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide
24Determining Ka by the Half-Titration of a Weak Acid
25The Rate and Order of a Chemical Reaction
26The Enthalpy of Neutralization of Phosphoric Acid
27α, β, and γ
28Radiation Shielding
29The Base Hydrolysis of Ethyl Acetate
30Exploring the Properties of Gases
31Determining Avogadro's Number
32Potentiometric Titration of Hydrogen Peroxide
33Determining the Half-Life of an Isotope
34Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization
35Rate Determination and Activation Energy

Experiment 6 from Advanced Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book

<i>Advanced Chemistry with Vernier</i> book cover

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