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Determining the Mole Ratios in a Chemical Reaction

Figure from experiment 9 from Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

Introduction

A balanced chemical reaction equation gives the mole ratios of the reactants and the products as coefficients. When some of the chemical formulas are not known, an experiment must be conducted to help determine the mole ratios.

This experiment uses two common substances as the reactants: hypochlorite ion (OCl) from household bleach and thiosulfate ion (S2O32–), the active ingredient in a photographic “fixer” solution used to develop film. In the reaction, hypochlorite ions oxidize the thiosulfate ions according to the unbalanced and incomplete reaction equation below.

A{\text{ OC}}{{\text{l}}^-} + B{\text{ }}{{\text{S}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}^{{\text{2}}-} \to {\text{products}}

It is possible to identify the coefficients, A and B, for the reactants, without knowing the products of the reaction. The process that you will use to determine the coefficients is called continuous variations. You will prepare a series of mixtures of the two reactants. Each mixture will have the same total volume and the same total number of moles of reactants. The reaction is exothermic, thus the mixture that generates the most heat energy will be the reaction that completely consumes both the hypochlorite and the thiosulfate ions. You will use this mixture to establish the coefficients, and therefore the mole ratio, for the reaction.

Objectives

In this experiment, you will

  • Measure the enthalpy change of a series of reactions.
  • Determine the stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction in which the reactants are known but the products are unknown.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Advanced Chemistry with Vernier »

Advanced Chemistry with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

1The Determination of a Chemical Formula
2The Determination of the Percent Water in a Compound
3The Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid
4Using Freezing-Point Depression to Find Molecular Weight
5The Molar Volume of a Gas
6Standardizing a Solution of Sodium Hydroxide
7Acid-Base Titration
8An Oxidation-Reduction Titration: The Reaction of Fe2+ and Ce4+
9Determining the Mole Ratios in a Chemical Reaction
10The Determination of an Equilibrium Constant
11Investigating Indicators
12The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide
13Determining the Enthalpy of a Chemical Reaction
14ASeparation and Qualitative Analysis of Cations
14BSeparation and Qualitative Analysis of Anions
15AThe Synthesis of Alum
15BThe Analysis of Alum
16Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate
17Determining the Concentration of a Solution: Beer's Law
18Liquid Chromatography
19Buffers
20Electrochemistry: Voltaic Cells
21Electroplating
22The Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin
23Determining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide
24Determining Ka by the Half-Titration of a Weak Acid
25The Rate and Order of a Chemical Reaction
26The Enthalpy of Neutralization of Phosphoric Acid
27α, β, and γ
28Radiation Shielding
29The Base Hydrolysis of Ethyl Acetate
30Exploring the Properties of Gases
31Determining Avogadro's Number
32Potentiometric Titration of Hydrogen Peroxide
33Determining the Half-Life of an Isotope
34Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization
35Rate Determination and Activation Energy

Experiment 9 from Advanced Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book

<i>Advanced Chemistry with Vernier</i> book cover

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