Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Acid-Base Titrations

Figure from experiment 17 from Investigating Chemistry through Inquiry

Introduction

A titration is a process used to determine the volume of a solution needed to react with a given amount of another substance. When titrating a solution of the strong acid hydrochloric acid, HCl, with a solution of the strong base sodium hydroxide, NaOH, the hydrogen ions from the HCl react with hydroxide ions from the NaOH in a one-to-one ratio to produce water in the overall reaction:

{{\text{H}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq)  +  C}}{{\text{l}}^ - }{\text{(aq)  +  N}}{{\text{a}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq)  +  O}}{{\text{H}}^ - }{\text{(aq)}} \to {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O(l)  +  N}}{{\text{a}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq)  +  C}}{{\text{l}}^ - }{\text{(aq)}}

When an HCl solution is titrated with an NaOH solution, the pH of the acidic solution is initially low. As base is added, the change in pH is quite gradual until close to the equivalence point, when equimolar amounts of acid and base have been mixed. Near the equivalence point, the pH increases very rapidly. The change in pH then becomes more gradual again, before leveling off with the addition of excess base.

Objectives

In the Preliminary Activity, you will titrate a solution of the strong acid hydrochloric acid, HCl, with a solution of the strong base sodium hydroxide, NaOH. The concentration of the NaOH solution is given and you will determine the unknown concentration of the HCl.

After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about acids, bases, and acid-base titrations before you choose and investigate a researchable question utilizing acid-base titrations.

Sensors and Equipment

This investigation features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Investigating Chemistry through Inquiry »

Investigating Chemistry through Inquiry

See other experiments from the lab book.

1Physical Properties of Water
2Baking Soda and Vinegar Investigations
3An Investigation of Urea-Containing Cold Packs
4Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions
5Identifying a Pure Substance
6Investigating the Energy Content of Foods
7Investigating the Energy Content of Fuels
8Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions
9Enthalpy Changes
10Reaction Stoichiometry
11Beer's Law Investigations
12Colligative Properties of Solutions
13Long Term Water Monitoring
14Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization Investigations
15Acid-Base Properties of Household Products
16The Effect of Acid Deposition on Aqueous Systems
17Acid-Base Titrations
18Conductimetric Titrations
19Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
20Investigating Voltaic Cells
21Baking Soda and Vinegar Investigations Revisited
22Reaction Rates
23Enzyme Activity
24Sugar Fermentation by Yeast
25Nuclear Radiation

Investigation 17 from Investigating Chemistry through Inquiry Lab Book

<i>Investigating Chemistry through Inquiry</i> book cover

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