Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Extraction of Spinach Pigments and Analysis by Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy

Introduction

Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is a useful tool for studying the electronic structure of unsaturated molecules and their conjugation. The electronic absorption spectra can generally reveal the degree of delocalization of the conjugated π system. The electronic transition between bonding and anti-bonding orbitals in organic molecules are large and normally require higher energy. As the number of π molecular orbitals increase in conjugated systems, the energy gaps between the filled and unfilled orbitals decrease. Lower energy is needed to promote electrons into an excited stated resulting in molecules that can absorb in the visible region.

In order to investigate the electronic absorption spectra of the pigments extracted from spinach, the chlorophylls and carotenoids need to be separated. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) can be used to investigate the solvent system for separation of the compounds. In thin-layer chromatography, the stationary phase is the adsorbent (usually silica or alumina) coated on a sheet of glass, metal, or plastic. The sample is applied as a spot near the bottom of the plate. The TLC plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a shallow layer of solvent, where the mobile phase (solvent) slowly rises by capillary action.

Objectives

In this experiment, you will

  • Extract the pigments in spinach leaves.
  • Determine the Rf values of the pigments in spinach.
  • Isolate the green and yellow pigments using column chromatography.
  • Identify the wavelengths of absorbance peaks for the extracted spinach pigments.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Organic Chemistry with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

1Determining Melting Temperature
2Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid and Aspirin
3Determination of a Boiling Point: Simple and Fractional Distillation
4Identifying an Unknown Analgesic by Melting Temperature and Thin-Layer Chromatography
5Separation of Organic Compounds by Acid-Base Extraction Techniques
6Understanding Polarimetry
7Identification of Organic Unknowns Using Polarimetry
8Investigating Gas Chromatography
9Fractional Distillation of Esters
10Understanding Intermolecular Forces Using a Gas Chromatograph: Enthalpy of Vaporization
11Investigating Thermodynamic Relationships of Substituted Hydrocarbons
12Extraction of Spinach Pigments and Analysis by Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy
13SN1: Synthesis of t-butyl chloride
14SN2: Synthesis of 1-bromobutane
15Observing the Reaction Kinetics of Sucrose with Polarimetry
16The Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin
17Isolation and Epoxidation of a Natural Product: Limonene
18Synthesizing Ethyl Acetate by Fisher Esterification
19Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone by Aldol Condensation
20The Diels-Alder Reaction of Anthracene with Maleic Anhydride
21Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Ferrocene
22Grignard Formation of Crystal Violet
23Synthesis of Fluorescein
24Synthesis of Methyl Orange and Its Application to Textiles
25Analysis of Natural Products
26Using a Gas Chromatograph: Identifying an Unknown Compound

Experiment 12 from Organic Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book

<i>Organic Chemistry with Vernier</i> book cover

Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

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