Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Synthesis of Fluorescein

Introduction

Fluorescein is an organic fluorescent dye used in several areas, ranging from medicine to research applications. Structurally, fluorescein is similar to phenolphthalein, a well known dye indicator used in acid-base titrations. Fluorescein is fluorescent whereas phenolphthalein is not.

Fluorescence occurs due to the emission of light from the relaxation of the molecule from the excited state to the ground state. The electronic transition to the excited state occurs when the excitation wavelength corresponds to the energy difference between the ground state and the excited state. In the excited state, some energy is lost to vibrational relaxation. As a result, fluorescence energy is less than the absorption energy and the emitted light is observed at a longer wavelength than the excitation wavelength.

Objectives

In this experiment, you will

  • Synthesize fluorescein.
  • Identify the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max).
  • Determine the purity of the sample based on Beer’s law.
  • Identify the emission wavelength.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Organic Chemistry with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

1Determining Melting Temperature
2Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid and Aspirin
3Determination of a Boiling Point: Simple and Fractional Distillation
4Identifying an Unknown Analgesic by Melting Temperature and Thin-Layer Chromatography
5Separation of Organic Compounds by Acid-Base Extraction Techniques
6Understanding Polarimetry
7Identification of Organic Unknowns Using Polarimetry
8Investigating Gas Chromatography
9Fractional Distillation of Esters
10Understanding Intermolecular Forces Using a Gas Chromatograph: Enthalpy of Vaporization
11Investigating Thermodynamic Relationships of Substituted Hydrocarbons
12Extraction of Spinach Pigments and Analysis by Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy
13SN1: Synthesis of t-butyl chloride
14SN2: Synthesis of 1-bromobutane
15Observing the Reaction Kinetics of Sucrose with Polarimetry
16The Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin
17Isolation and Epoxidation of a Natural Product: Limonene
18Synthesizing Ethyl Acetate by Fisher Esterification
19Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone by Aldol Condensation
20The Diels-Alder Reaction of Anthracene with Maleic Anhydride
21Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Ferrocene
22Grignard Formation of Crystal Violet
23Synthesis of Fluorescein
24Synthesis of Methyl Orange and Its Application to Textiles
25Analysis of Natural Products
26Using a Gas Chromatograph: Identifying an Unknown Compound

Experiment 23 from Organic Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book

<i>Organic Chemistry with Vernier</i> book cover

Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

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