 Vernier Software & Technology

# Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hess's Law

## Introduction

In this experiment, you will use a Styrofoam-cup calorimeter to measure the heat released by three reactions. One of the reactions is the same as the combination of the other two reactions. Therefore, according to Hess’s law, the heat of reaction of the one reaction should be equal to the sum of the heats of reaction for the other two. This concept is sometimes referred to as the additivity of heats of reaction. The primary objective of this experiment is to confirm this law.

The reactions we will use in this experiment are:

(1) Solid sodium hydroxide dissolves in water to form an aqueous solution of ions. ${\text{NaOH(s)}} \to {\text{N}}{{\text{a}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq) + O}}{{\text{H}}^{\text{ - }}}{\text{(aq) }}\Delta {{\text{H}}_{\text{1}}}{\text{ = ?}}$

(2) Solid sodium hydroxide reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to form water and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. ${\text{NaOH(s) + }}{{\text{H}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq)) + C}}{{\text{l}}^{\text{ - }}}{\text{(aq)}} \to {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O(1) + N}}{{\text{a}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq) + C}}{{\text{l}}^{{\text{ - }}}}{\text{(aq) }}\Delta {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{ = ?}}$

(3) Solutions of aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid react to form water and aqueous sodium chloride. ${\text{N}}{{\text{a}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq) + O}}{{\text{H}}^{\text{ - }}}{\text{(aq) + }}{{\text{H}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{(aq)) + C}}{{\text{l}}^{\text{ - }}}{\text{(aq)}} \to {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O(1) + N}}{{\text{a}}^{{\text{ + }}}}{\text{(aq) + C}}{{\text{l}}^{\text{ - }}}{\text{(aq) }}\Delta {{\text{H}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{ = ?}}$

## Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Combine equations for two reactions to obtain the equation for a third reaction.
• Use a calorimeter to measure the temperature change in each of three reactions.
• Calculate the heat of reaction, ΔH, for the three reactions.
• Use the results to confirm Hess's law.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

### Option 2

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Chemistry with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions 2 Freezing and Melting of Water 3 Another Look at Freezing Temperature 4 Heat of Fusion of Ice 5 Find the Relationship: An Exercise in Graphing Analysis 6 Boyle's Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases 7 Pressure-Temperature Relationship in Gases 8 Fractional Distillation 9 Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions 10 Vapor Pressure of Liquids 11 Determining the Concentration of a Solution: Beer's Law 12 Effect of Temperature on Solubility of a Salt 13 Properties of Solutions: Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes 14 Conductivity of Solutions: The Effect of Concentration 15 Using Freezing Point Depression to Find Molecular Weight 16 Energy Content of Foods 17 Energy Content of Fuels 18 Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hess's Law 19 Heat of Combustion: Magnesium 20 Chemical Equilibrium: Finding a Constant, Kc 21 Household Acids and Bases 22 Acid Rain 23 Titration Curves of Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 24 Acid-Base Titration 25 Titration of a Diprotic Acid: Identifying an Unknown 26 Using Conductivity to Find an Equivalence Point 27 Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka 28 Establishing a Table of Reduction Potentials: Micro-Voltaic Cells 29 Lead Storage Batteries 30 Rate Law Determination of the Crystal Violet Reaction 31 Time-Release Vitamin C Tablets 32 The Buffer in Lemonade 33 Determining the Free Chlorine Content of Swimming Pool Water 34 Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet 35 Determining the Phosphoric Acid Content in Soft Drinks 36 Microscale Acid-Base Titration

### Experiment 18 from Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book #### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.