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Vernier Software & Technology

Determining the Free Chlorine Content of Swimming Pool Water

Figure from experiment 33 from Chemistry with Vernier


Physicians in the nineteenth century used chlorine water as a disinfectant. Upon the discovery that certain diseases were transmitted by water, it became common for municipalities to chlorinate public water supplies. It is now standard practice to add chlorine to swimming pools and hot tubs. Chlorine reacts with water to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite ion (ClO).

{\text{C}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{  +  }}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O}} \to {\text{HOCl  +  }}{{\text{H}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{  +  C}}{{\text{l}}^{\text{ - }}} {\text{HOCl}} \leftrightarrow {{\text{H}}^{\text{ + }}}{\text{  +  OC}}{{\text{l}}^{\text{ - }}}

The chlorine that exists in water as HOCl and OCl is known as free chlorine. Free chlorine can kill bacteria, prevent algae growth, and oxidize iron to form a precipitate that can be removed from a pool by the filtering system. Swimming pool operators try to maintain a desired range of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/L of free chlorine for proper sanitation.

In this experiment, you will use a Colorimeter to determine the amount of free chlorine in a sample of swimming pool or hot tub water. You will first measure the absorbance of green light (565 nm) by aqueous solutions of known chlorine concentration. From the resulting graph of absorbance vs. free chlorine concentration (Beer’s law), you will be able to determine the free chlorine content of your swimming pool sample.

A compound called DPD (N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) is reacted with the chlorine in each sample. The DPD is oxidized, forming a magenta (red) product. The intensity of the sample’s color is directly proportional to its chlorine concentration.


In this experiment, you will

  • Prepare free chlorine standard solutions.
  • Use a Colorimeter to measure the absorbance of each standard solution.
  • Plot a graph of absorbance of free chlorine vs. concentration.
  • Use a Colorimeter and your Beer's law plot to determine the amount of free chlorine in a sample of swimming pool or hot tub water.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Option 4

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Chemistry with Vernier »

Chemistry with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

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2Freezing and Melting of Water
3Another Look at Freezing Temperature
4Heat of Fusion of Ice
5Find the Relationship: An Exercise in Graphing Analysis
6Boyle's Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases
7Pressure-Temperature Relationship in Gases
8Fractional Distillation
9Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions
10Vapor Pressure of Liquids
11Determining the Concentration of a Solution: Beer's Law
12Effect of Temperature on Solubility of a Salt
13Properties of Solutions: Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes
14Conductivity of Solutions: The Effect of Concentration
15Using Freezing Point Depression to Find Molecular Weight
16Energy Content of Foods
17Energy Content of Fuels
18Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hess's Law
19Heat of Combustion: Magnesium
20Chemical Equilibrium: Finding a Constant, Kc
21Household Acids and Bases
22Acid Rain
23Titration Curves of Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
24Acid-Base Titration
25Titration of a Diprotic Acid: Identifying an Unknown
26Using Conductivity to Find an Equivalence Point
27Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka
28Establishing a Table of Reduction Potentials: Micro-Voltaic Cells
29Lead Storage Batteries
30Rate Law Determination of the Crystal Violet Reaction
31Time-Release Vitamin C Tablets
32The Buffer in Lemonade
33Determining the Free Chlorine Content of Swimming Pool Water
34Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet
35Determining the Phosphoric Acid Content in Soft Drinks
36Microscale Acid-Base Titration

Experiment 33 from Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book

<em>Chemistry with Vernier</em> book cover

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Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

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Dev Reference: VST0102

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