Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Work Done by Gravity

Introduction

The goal of this activity is for students to recognize that the work done by gravity is another way to understand gravitational potential energy. Students develop a model to predict the energy present in a system due to its position.

Physics texts often include the earth in their definition of a system without explaining that is what they are doing. In this activity, we define the system as an object with an external force of gravity (and others) acting on it. This activity should provide students with some context for using the equation for gravitational potential energy and a sense of the importance of the definition of a system.

The challenge for students is to recognize that the force of gravity can do work on an object and thus be transformed into kinetic (or other forms of) energy. The ultimate goal is for students to develop a mathematical model that can predict the change in energy that results from the force of gravity acting on an object through some range of vertical displacement.

During the inquiry process, students may use a motion detector, a Motion Encoder, or a Go direct Sensor Cart to collect data for an object moving through some vertical distance. The kinetic energy gained should be compared to the change in height of the object.

We recommend a follow-up discussion to help students build context between their earlier understanding of potential energy and this activity. Key points include the importance of the definition of a system, the relationship between gravitational potential energy, and the idea of the force of gravity working on an object.

It may be engaging (but not at all necessary) to discuss what happens when the system involves distances significantly away from the surface of the earth and the added sophistication required to address work done by universal gravitational force.

Learning Outcomes

  • Design and perform an investigation.
  • Draw a conclusion from evidence.
  • Identify that work done on a system is equal to change in kinetic energy.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Option 4

Option 5

Option 6

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Next Generation Science Standards

Disciplinary Core Ideas

  • PS2.B Types of Interactions
  • PS3.A Definitions of Energy
  • PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
  • PS3.C Relationship Between Energy and Forces

Crosscutting Concepts

  • Patterns
  • Structure and Function
  • Cause and Effect
  • Systems and System Models
  • Energy and Matter
  • Influence of Science, Engineering and Technology on Society and the Natural World
  • Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

Science and Engineering Practices

  • Developing and Using Models
  • Analyzing and Interpreting Data
  • Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
  • Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
  • Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
  • Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Physics Explorations and Projects

See other experiments from the lab book.

1Constant Motion and Changing Motion
2Balanced Forces and Unbalanced Forces
3Gravitation on Earth
4Newton’s Second Law
5Projectile Challenge
6Impulse and Momentum
7Equilibrium of Forces
8Circular Motion
9Conservation of Momentum
10Egg Protection Challenge
11Springs Making Things Move
12Kinetic Energy and Mass
13Work and Kinetic Energy
14Work Done by Gravity
15Energy in Collisions
16Rube Goldberg Machine
17Charge and Charge Models
18Coulomb's Law
19Measuring Electric Current
20Conservation of Charge
21Voltage in a Circuit
22Battery Challenge
23Magnetic Field of a Current
24Current from a Changing Field
25Generating Electricity
26Speaker
27Wave Speed on a String
28Speed of Sound
29Interference and Diffraction
30Sound and Loudness
31Wave Communication Challenge
32Energy Storage in Capacitors
33Oscillations
34Heat as Energy Transfer
35Solar Cells
36Rube Goldberg Machine Revisited

Experiment 14 from Physics Explorations and Projects Lab Book

<i>Physics Explorations and Projects</i> book cover

Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

Buy the Book

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