Vernier Software & Technology

# Standing Waves in a Column of Air

## Introduction

When you shake a string, a pulse travels down its length. When it reaches the end, the pulse can be reflected. A series of regularly occurring pulses will generate traveling waves that, after reflection from the other end, will interfere with the oncoming waves. When the conditions are right, the superposition of these waves traveling in opposite directions can give rise to something known as a “standing wave.” That is, there appear to be stationary waves on the string with some parts of the string hardly moving at all and other regions where the string experiences a large displacement. Standing waves can be set up in other materials such as a column of air in a tube. These standing waves are responsible for the tones produced by wind instruments.

In this experiment, you will examine these standing wave patterns and use what you know about frequency and wavelength to determine the speed of sound in air.

## Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Set up standing wave patterns in a column of air in open-end and closed-end tubes.
• Determine the relationship between tube length and wavelength for these standing waves.
• Use transverse wave patterns to describe the nodes and antinodes that occur in a column of air in open-end and closed-end tubes.
• Determine the speed of sound in air.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Advanced Physics with Vernier — Beyond Mechanics

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Behavior of a Gas 2 Heat Engines 3 Standing Waves on a String 4 Standing Waves in a Column of Air 5 Doppler Effect 6 Electrostatics 7 Coulomb's Law 8 Mapping Electric Potential 9 Factors Affecting Electrical Resistance 10 Series and Parallel Circuits 11 Faraday’s Law: Moving Magnet 12 Faraday’s Law: Alternating Current 13 Capacitors and Inductors 14 RLC Circuits 15 Curved Mirrors and Images 16 Thin Lenses and Real Images 17 Thin Lenses and Virtual Images 18 Aperture and Depth of Field 19 Interference 20 Diffraction 21 Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen 22 Planck’s Constant

### Experiment 4 from Advanced Physics with Vernier — Beyond Mechanics Lab Book

#### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.