Vernier Software & Technology

# Impulse and Momentum (Photogate)

## Introduction

You are no doubt familiar with everyday uses of the term momentum; e.g., a sports team that has begun to exert superiority over an opponent is said to have gained “momentum.” However, in physics, this term has a precise definition: momentum, p, is the product of the mass and velocity of an object p = mv.

You have learned that a net force is required to change the velocity of an object. In this experiment you will examine how the momentum of a cart changes as a force acts on it. This will enable you to determine the relationship between force, the length of time the force is applied and the change in the momentum of the cart.

## Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Collect force, velocity, and time data as a cart experiences different types of collisions.
• Determine an expression for the change in momentum, Δp, in terms of the force and duration of a collision.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Advanced Physics with Vernier — Mechanics

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Motion on an Incline 2 Error Analysis 3 Newton's First Law 4 Newton's Second Law 5 Newton's Third Law 6 Projectile Motion 7 Energy Storage and Transfer: Elastic Energy 8 Energy Storage and Transfer: Kinetic Energy 9 Energy Storage and Transfer: Gravitational Energy 10A Impulse and Momentum (Motion Detector) 10B Impulse and Momentum (Photogate) 11A Momentum and Collisions (Motion Detectors) 11B Momentum and Collisions (Photogates) 12A Centripetal Acceleration 12B Centripetal Acceleration 13 Rotational Dynamics 14 Conservation of Angular Momentum 15 Simple Harmonic Motion: Mathematical Model 16 Simple Harmonic Motion: Kinematics and Dynamics 17 Pendulum Periods 18 Physical Pendulum 19 Center of Mass

### Experiment 10B from Advanced Physics with Vernier — Mechanics Lab Book

#### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.