Vernier Software & Technology

# Back and Forth Motion

## Introduction

Lots of objects go back and forth; that is, they move along a path first in one direction, then move back the other way. An oscillating pendulum or a ball tossed vertically into the air are examples of things that go back and forth. Graphs of the position vs. time and velocity vs. time for such objects share several features. When an object changes speed or direction, it accelerates. By examining the graphs, you will be able to tell if an object is accelerating. In this experiment, you will observe several objects that change speed and direction as they go back and forth:

• Oscillating pendulum
• Dynamics cart rolling up and down an incline
• Student jumping into the air
• Mass oscillating at the end of a spring
• Ball tossed into the air

Analyzing and comparing graphs of the motion of these objects will help you to apply ideas of kinematics more clearly.

## Objectives

• Qualitatively analyze the motion of objects that move back and forth.
• Analyze and interpret back and forth motion in kinematics graphs.
• Use kinematic graphs to catalog objects that exhibit similar motion.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Physics with Vernier

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Graph Matching 2A Back and Forth Motion 2B Back and Forth Motion 3A Cart on a Ramp 3B Cart on a Ramp 4A Determining g on an Incline 4B Determining g on an Incline 5 Picket Fence Free Fall 6 Ball Toss 7 Bungee Jump Accelerations 8A Projectile Motion (Photogates) 8B Projectile Motion (Projectile Launcher) 9 Newton's Second Law 10 Atwood's Machine 11 Newton's Third Law 12 Static and Kinetic Friction 13 Air Resistance 14 Pendulum Periods 15 Simple Harmonic Motion 16 Energy of a Tossed Ball 17 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 18A Momentum, Energy and Collisions 18B Momentum, Energy and Collisions 19A Impulse and Momentum 19B Impulse and Momentum 20 Centripetal Accelerations on a Turntable 21 Accelerations in the Real World 22 Ohm's Law 23 Series and Parallel Circuits 24 Capacitors 25 The Magnetic Field in a Coil 26 The Magnetic Field in a Slinky 27 Electrical Energy 28A Polarization of Light 28B Polarization of Light (Rotary Motion Sensor) 29 Light, Brightness and Distance 30 Newton's Law of Cooling 31 The Magnetic Field of a Permanent Magnet 32 Sound Waves and Beats 33 Speed of Sound 34 Tones, Vowels and Telephones 35 Mathematics of Music

### Experiment 2B from Physics with Vernier Lab Book

#### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.