Vernier Software and Technology
Vernier Software & Technology

Stay Tuned: Sound Waveform Models

Figure from experiment 26 from Real-World Math Made Easy


If you throw a rock into a calm pond, the water around the point of entry begins to move up and down, causing ripples to travel outward. If these ripples come across a small floating object such as a leaf, they will cause the leaf to move up and down on the water. Much like waves in water, sound in air is produced by the vibration of an object. These vibrations produce pressure oscillations in the surrounding air which travel outward like the ripples on the pond. When the pressure waves reach the eardrum, they cause it to vibrate. These vibrations are then translated into nerve impulses and interpreted by your brain as sounds.

These pressure waves are what we usually call sound waves. Most waves are very complex, but the sound from a tuning fork is a single tone that can be described mathematically using a cosine function:

y = A\cos \left( {B\left( {x - C} \right)} \right)

In this activity you will analyze the tone from a tuning fork by collecting data with a microphone.


  • Record the sound waveform of a tuning fork.
  • Analyze the waveform to determine frequency, period and amplitude information.
  • Model the waveform using trigonometric functions.

Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

Additional Requirements

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

Standards Correlations

See all standards correlations for Real-World Math Made Easy »

Real-World Math Made Easy

See other experiments from the lab book.

1Walk the Line - Straight Line Distance Graphs
2Making Cents of Math: Linear Relationship between Weight and Quantity
3Pool Plunge - Linear Relationship between Water Depth and Pressure
4Funnel Volumes - Volume and Weight
5Keep It Bottled Up - Rates of Pressure Increase
6Graph It in Pieces: Piecewise Defined Functions
7Mix It Up - Mixing Liquids of Different Temperatures
8Spring Thing - Newton's Second Law
9Stretch It to the Limit - The Linear Force Relation for a Rubber Band
10What Goes Up - Position and Time for a Cart on a Ramp
11That's the Way the Ball Bounces - Height and Time for a Bouncing Ball
12Walk This Way - Definition of Rate
13Velocity Test - Interpreting Graphs
14From Here to There - Applications of the Distance Formula
15Under Pressure - The Inverse Relationship between Pressure and Volume
16Light at A Distance - Distance and Intensity
17Chill Out: How Hot Objects Cool
18Charging Up, Charging Down - Charging a Capacitor
19Bounce Back - The Pattern of Rebound Heights
20Sour Chemistry - The Exponential pH Change
21Stepping to the Greatest Integer: The Greatest Integer Function
22Swinging Ellipses - Plotting an Ellipse
23Crawling Around: Parametric Plots
24Lights Out! - Periodic Phenomena
25Tic, Toc: Pendulum Motion
26Stay Tuned: Sound Waveform Models
27Up And Down: Damped Harmonic Motion
28How Tall? Describing Data with Statistical Plots
29And Now, the Weather - Describing Data with Statistics
30Meet You at the Intersection: Solving a System of Linear Equations
31Titration Curves: An Application of the Logistic Function

Experiment 26 from Real-World Math Made Easy Lab Book

<i>Real-World Math Made Easy</i> book cover

Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

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