 Vernier Software & Technology

# Spring Thing - Newton's Second Law

## Introduction

If you push or pull an object (and yours is the only force on the object), the way it changes its motion depends on two things: the force you apply, and the object’s mass. Sir Isaac Newton was the first to recognize that an object’s acceleration is directly proportional to the total force applied (the larger the force, the more rapidly it speeds up or slows down), and inversely proportional to its mass (massive objects have a greater tendency to resist efforts to make them speed up or slow down). Stated mathematically, that is F = ma where F is the force applied to the object, m is its mass, and a is its acceleration. This expression is known as Newton’s second law.

In this activity, you will use a force sensor and a motion detector to record force and acceleration data for an object (called the bob) moving up and down hanging from a light spring. These data will be used to test the mathematical relationship of Newton second law.

## Objectives

• Collect force and motion data for a bob moving at the end of a light spring.
• Compare the force and acceleration data to test Newton's second law.
• Use Newton's second law to estimate the mass of an object.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

## Real-World Math Made Easy

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 Walk the Line - Straight Line Distance Graphs 2 Making Cents of Math: Linear Relationship between Weight and Quantity 3 Pool Plunge - Linear Relationship between Water Depth and Pressure 4 Funnel Volumes - Volume and Weight 5 Keep It Bottled Up - Rates of Pressure Increase 6 Graph It in Pieces: Piecewise Defined Functions 7 Mix It Up - Mixing Liquids of Different Temperatures 8 Spring Thing - Newton's Second Law 9 Stretch It to the Limit - The Linear Force Relation for a Rubber Band 10 What Goes Up - Position and Time for a Cart on a Ramp 11 That's the Way the Ball Bounces - Height and Time for a Bouncing Ball 12 Walk This Way - Definition of Rate 13 Velocity Test - Interpreting Graphs 14 From Here to There - Applications of the Distance Formula 15 Under Pressure - The Inverse Relationship between Pressure and Volume 16 Light at A Distance - Distance and Intensity 17 Chill Out: How Hot Objects Cool 18 Charging Up, Charging Down - Charging a Capacitor 19 Bounce Back - The Pattern of Rebound Heights 20 Sour Chemistry - The Exponential pH Change 21 Stepping to the Greatest Integer: The Greatest Integer Function 22 Swinging Ellipses - Plotting an Ellipse 23 Crawling Around: Parametric Plots 24 Lights Out! - Periodic Phenomena 25 Tic, Toc: Pendulum Motion 26 Stay Tuned: Sound Waveform Models 27 Up And Down: Damped Harmonic Motion 28 How Tall? Describing Data with Statistical Plots 29 And Now, the Weather - Describing Data with Statistics 30 Meet You at the Intersection: Solving a System of Linear Equations 31 Titration Curves: An Application of the Logistic Function

### Experiment 8 from Real-World Math Made Easy Lab Book #### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.