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# Experiments​

## Mixing Warm and Cold Water

Experiment #7 from Physical Science with Vernier

### Introduction

Heat can be defined as energy transferred between matter because of differences in temperature. The ability of matter to transfer heat depends on its mass and temperature. A calorimeter is an instrument used to measure changes in heat energy. You can make a simple calorimeter using a Styrofoam cup to contain water, a beaker for more insulation and support, and a Temperature Probe to measure temperatures. The joule (J) is the SI unit for heat energy. An equation that can be used to calculate change in heat energy is

$H = \Delta t \cdot m \cdot {C_p}$

where H = heat absorbed or released (in J), Δt = change in temperature (in °C), m = mass (in g), and Cp = specific heat capacity (4.18 J/g°C for water).

### Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Construct and use a simple calorimeter.
• Measure temperature.
• Mix cold and warm water.
• Determine heat lost by cooling water.
• Determine heat gained by warming water.
• Compare heat lost by cooling water and heat gained by warming water.

### Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following sensors and equipment. Additional equipment may be required.

#### Option 1

Go Direct® Temperature Probe (2)

#### Option 2

Stainless Steel Temperature Probe (2)

### Correlations

Teaching to an educational standard? This experiment supports the standards below.

International Baccalaureate (IB) 2025/Physics
The students should understand quantitative analysis of thermal energy transfers Q with the use of specific heat capacity c and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization of substances L as given by Q = mcΔT and Q = mL