It is often necessary to test a solution of unknown concentration with a solution of a known, precise concentration. The process of determining the unknown’s concentration is called standardization.

Solutions of sodium hydroxide are virtually impossible to prepare to a precise molar concentration because the substance is hygroscopic. In fact, solid NaOH absorbs so much moisture from the air that a measured sample of the compound is never 100% NaOH. On the other hand, the acid salt potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, can be measured out in precise mass amounts. It reacts with NaOH in a simple 1:1 stoichiometric ratio, thus making it an ideal substance to use to standardize a solution of NaOH.


In this experiment, you will

  • Prepare an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide to a target molar concentration.
  • Determine the concentration of your NaOH solution by titrating it with a solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate, abbreviated KHP, with an exact molar concentration.