The short answer is no.
While power adapters that came with older LabQuest units can power LabQuest 3, they cannot provide enough current to also charge the battery. You should only use a power supply designed for LabQuest 3: LabQuest® Power Supply (LQ3-PS).
You can use a LabQuest International Power Supply (LQ-PS-INTL, discontinued) with LabQuest 3. This adapter can supply more current than the US version.
One way to check to see if the power adapter will work with a LabQuest 3 is to look at the adapter’s output printed on the label. The current output needs to be 2500 mA.