Acid deposition is a topic of much concern in today’s world. It can kill fish and other water life by lowering the pH of lakes and rivers. The pH scale is a measure of acidity. A pH value of 7 is neutral, values lower than 7 are increasingly acidic, and values higher than 7 are increasingly basic. Acid deposition is more harmful in some areas than others because some water resists changes in pH better than others. This ability to resist pH change is called buffering capacity.


In Part I of the Preliminary Activity, you will use a pH Sensor to monitor pH as dilute sulfuric acid is added drop wise to a water sample.

General water hardness is related to the dissolved minerals in the water. In Part II of the Preliminary Activity, you will use a Conductivity Probe to determine the conductivity of water from the same source.