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# Contact Forces: Vernier Supplement to OpenSciEd Unit 8.1

## Contact Forces: Vernier Supplement to OpenSciEd Unit 8.1

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This unit on contact forces begins as students consider situations in which they have seen their phones break. Students make general observations about what happens to objects during collisions and quickly move to analyzing data that show that objects deform when forces are applied. Students then design solutions to protect an object of their choice in a collision.

The Vernier Supplement to Unit 8.1 is a free complement to the OpenSciEd curriculum and includes data-collection technology enhanced lessons to supplement the existing curriculum.

ORDER CODE: OSE-81CF-E Categories
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## Requirements

Our partnership with OpenSciEd gives middle school teachers access to free high-quality instructional materials that integrate our data-collection technology and align with the Next Generation Science Standards.

2. Add the free Contact Forces Supplement to your Vernier shopping cart.
5. Swap in the enhanced data-collection lessons for the OpenSciEd lessons.

## Lessons

There are 16 lessons in OpenSciEd Unit 8.1: Contact Forces.

7 of the lessons are enhanced with Vernier data-collection technology and are included in the Vernier supplement. These 7 lessons use Vernier Graphical Analysisâ„¢ and the OpenSciEd SensorÂ Cart Package.

 Lessons Vernier Technology Used Lesson 1: What happens when two things hit each other? Lesson 2: What causes changes in the motion and shape of colliding objects? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package Lesson 3: Do all objects change shape or bend when they are pushed in a collision? Lesson 4: How much do you have to push on any object to get it to deform (temporarily vs. permanently)? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package (optional) Lesson 5: How does changing the mass or speed of a moving object before it collides with another object affect the forces on those objects during the collision? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package Lesson 6: What have we figured out about objects interacting in collisions? How can we apply our new learning to answer questions about objects interacting in collisions? Lesson 7: How much does doubling the speed or doubling the mass affect the kinetic energy of an object and the resulting damage that it can do in a collision? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package Lesson 8: Where did the energy in our launcher system come from, and after the collisions where did it go to? Lesson 9: How do other contact forces from interactions with the air and the track cause energy transfers in the launcher system? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package Lesson 10: Why do some objects break or not break in a collision? Lesson 11: What can we design to better protect objects in a collision? Lesson 12: What materials best reduce the peak forces in a collision? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package Lesson 13: How (and why) does the structure of a cushioning material affect the peak forces produced in a collision? OpenSciEd Sensor Cart Package (optional) Lesson 14: How can we use our science ideas and other societal wants and needs to refine our designs? Lesson 15: How can we use what we figured out to evaluate another engineerâ€™s design? Lesson 16 (optional): How can we market our designs to our potential investors?